UNIVERSITY OF FORT HARE

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

ANC ARCHIVES

JAPAN MISSION , (Code: JaM)

RECORDS, 1984-1993

(bulk dates, 1988 – 1993)

25 Boxes (2.7 linear meters)

ACQUISITION: ANC Archive Committee

ACCESS: The collection is open

PHOTOGRAPHS: See Photographs series, box 15

VISUAL MATERIAL: Video collection separated and shelved among the rest of videos

AUDIO MATERIAL: Audio collection separated and shelved among the rest of Audios

PRINTED MATERIAL: Boxes 13 and 14

COPYRIGHT: ANC Archive Committee

PROCESSED BY: Arrangement and description done under the auspices of a joint project between the University of Fort Hare and the University of Michigan. Primary processor, Edwin Staples, June 1999.

FURTHER REVISED BY: Africa Media Online (Angasipha Mbenya, Kulu Mushaka), Mr Mosoabuli Maamoe, October 2017

 

Historical background on Japan Mission

Following the banning of the African National Congress (ANC) as an illegal organization on 8 April 1960, The ANC operated underground. The ANC functioned internally as an underground organization and externally as an overseas organization. Oliver Tambo was sent overseas as the ANC acting president general and head of the external mission. External missions were opened in London, Accra, Cairo, and Dar-es-Salaam. Eventually the ANC had offices and representatives in 32 countries by 1980. The external missions worked to win support for the overthrow of apartheid by promoting the cause of the ANC and urging international economic pressure against the South African government.

The external missions worked to win support for the overthrow of apartheid by promoting the cause of the ANC and urging international economic pressure against the South African government.

The records of the New York Mission (series, Subject Files, folder Oslo Conference) furnish us with the following history, written by Mission Chief Jerry Matsila, in 1989:

The ANC Chief Representative arrived in Tokyo, Japan, on May 15 and opened our first mission to the Far East Region ten days later, May 25, 1988-Africa Liberation Day. All these took place as before the opening of our representative office, quite a number of our comrades, including Comrade President O.R. Tambo visited the region, Japan in particular, to campaign and solicit support for our struggle. Influential individuals from inside South Africa like Rev. Allen Boesak and Bishop Tutu also made trips, at least once to Japan to further mobilize for isolation of the apartheid regime. These important visits, together with international condemnation of Japan as the leading trading partner of Pretoria and the national showing of the movie “Cry Freedom”, occasional small scale activities and campaigns of anti-Apartheid and other citizen movements, help to create a foundation from which our newly opened office could start its activities and implement tasks assigned.

The importance of the work of Cde. Matsila drew the attention of the Washington Post, which published a story (see series Publications, folder Miscellaneous) on Japan and its race issues on 5 January, 1992 in their Magazine: “Currently, 64% of the cars in South Africa come from Japan; 50% of the gold in Japan comes from South Africa, along with 80% of the platinum and 42% of the diamonds.” A concern on the part of the Japanese and the ANC that this nation should truly understanding the politics and the people of South Africa was born of the original intent to pressure Japanese commerce to comply with economic sanctions. In the Post Apartheid Years it will be as important to foster this understanding as trade between the two nations continues to flourish. Japan’s response to Cde. Matsila’s efforts, according to the Post, earned him “celebrity” status in Japan.

 

Scope and Content Note

Perhaps of greatest interest to the researcher is the apparent paradox of seeking support from the ANC from a G7 country that gave more support to the Apartheid regime (economically speaking) than any other. But it was exactly this reality that spurred ANC into action in Asia, a region which, as Apartheid saw its last years, was becoming increasingly important to the developing world in its struggles for economic security and justice.

This collection briefly chronicles the transition of the Japanese attitude to the ANC and Africa at large, from one of misunderstanding and economic cynicism to a relationship of support with the changing South African leadership. While this transition is far from complete, the collection shows that, on the part of the ANC Japanese Mission, there was an understanding of heightened communication as a tool to furthering better relations between the two countries.

There are five series. Correspondence, News-clippings, Subject Files Periodicals and. Photographs.

Series I- Correspondence (7 folders) are arranged mainly chronologically. Faxes were kept separately by the offices as Faxes Received and Faxes dispatched. However, this distinction was done away with because the faxes within the files were already mixed. and then separated by year. Where senders and recipients are mixed, the folder is given a general name, such a Faxes Dispatched. Like other missions, this mission contains a preponderance of evidence of the planning of events; the receipt by the ANC of supportive overtures from dozens of agencies, unions, countries and NGOs; and an increasing support from external forces, the harvesting of which was key to the success of the ANC.

Series II – News-clippings (20 cm) focuses on the higher profile South African issues, briefly displaying the transitions that foreign missions had to make in the early 1990’s from being harbingers of change to supporters and public relations offices to a newly empowered political force.

Series III – Subject Files (93 cm) is a record of both the Japanese and the South African Anti-apartheid movements. Some Japan-centered folders in this series reveal the nascent movement to sway the Japanese and Asians in general away from what is perceived as a general misunderstanding African people, and a tacit racism (as opposed to the active racism of the Western nations). Such titles as Stop Racism in Japan and The Association to Stop Racism Against Blacks display that the ANC office was in tune with the changing attitudes of Japanese society.

Series IV- Periodicals (72 cm) is a combination of international and South African publications, primarily those with a strong support of or interest in the Anti-apartheid movement.

Series V- Photographs (30 cm) series feature records of supporting events within Japan to garner solidarity and financial support within the country and to educate the populous on the importance of understanding the struggle in South Africa.

Additional boxes
There are boxes that were found later, it was decided to add them towards the end of the existing collection. There were 10 with 6 Series namely:
1. Correspondence, boxes 0016-0018
2. Reports, boxes 0019-0021
3. Minutes, box 0022
4. Statements, box 0023
5. Discussion Documents, box0024
6. Publications, box0025

 

Series I – Correspondence

Box 0001
0001. n.d., 1988 – 1989
0002. 1990 – 1991
0003. 1992 – 1994
0004. Faxes, n.d., 1988 – 1990
0005. Faxes, 1991 – 1993
0006. Faxes, ANC Women’s League, 1. 0007. Mandela, N.R., n.d. Includes congratulatory message from SGI, 2. President Ikeda, Oct 1993 (Nobel Peace Prize)

 

Series II – News clippings

Box0002
0001. n.d., 197? – 1988
0002. 1989
0003. 1990
0004. 1991
0005. 1992 (i)

Box 0003
0006. 1992 (ii)
0007. 1992 (iii)
0008. 1992 (iv)
0009. 1992 (v)

Box 0004
0010. 1992 (vi)
0011. 1993 – 1994
0012. Japanese, 1988 – 1990

Series III – Subject Files

Box 0005
0001. A.L. Nellum, visit to SA, 1990-1991
0002. African Heads of Missions, Japan: Minutes of meeting, Nov 1992 and various meeting notices
0003. Amandla, Japan Tour, 1990
0004. Amnesty International Japanese Section, 1988 – 1989, 1990, 1992, n.d
0005. ANC 77th Anniversary Celebration (in Japanese and English), 1988
0006. ANC 80th Anniversary Celebration, 1991
0007. ANC Catalogues, n.d, 1988
0008. ANC Development Centre, Dakawa, Annual General Report, 1991
0009. ANC Economic Policy Discussion documents, 1990 – 1991
0010. ANC Election Strategy workshop, 1993
0011. ANC Elections, 1994
0012. ANC International Donors Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, Feb 1991

Box 0006
0013. ANC International Solidarity Conference, Feb 1993
0014. ANC papers: policy, discussion, workshops, c1990s
0015. ANC Speeches, n.d., 1993
0016. ANC Statement on “Taiwan withdraws visa for ANC Chief Rep, 1990
0017. ANC Statements and press releases (1), c1990s
0018. ANC Statements and press releases (2), c1990s
0019. ANC Tokyo office, press releases, 1988-1991
0020. ANC vision for 1991 (Japan office)
0021. ANC Women’s League, Malibongwe Conference, 1989 and Policy Development Division, 1993
0022. ANC Youth League paper: “S A Youth: Reconstruction and Development”, n.d.
0023. Anti Apartheid campaigns, 1992. Includes Anti apartheid Asia Ocean workshop papers, 1988

Box 0007
0024. Appeal from Pretoria’s death cells, 1989
0025. Arts against Apartheid, n.d., 1988-1991
0026. Arts, culture and Sport, includes song sheets and Nkosi Sikelela in Japanese, 1989 – 1990, 1975, 1979, n.d 1988
0027. Asia, Africa, Latin America Solidarity Committee (AALA), n.d., 1987 – 1991
0028. Association to Stop Racism Against Blacks [in Japan], 1988, 1989, 1990, n.d
0029. Beyond Apartheid (ANC booklet in Japanese), n.d, 1989
0030. Biographies: Mbeki, Thabo; Chissano, Joaquim A; Gwangwa, Jonas; Shope, Ntombi R

Box 0008
0031. Campaigns, 1988 – 1989
0032. Cards, badges, business cards, stickers
0033. CASA Choir Netherlands, incl songsheets
0034. CODESA (Convention for a Democratic South Africa), 1992
0035. Congress of South African trade Unions (COSATU) and affiliates, miscellaneous documents
0036. Education in South Africa, n.d., 1991 – 1992
0037. Freedom Charter [1955] copies
0038. Gold Boycott, n.d., 1989 – 1990
0039. Harare Declaration, OAU, 1989
0040. Health Sector, various papers
0041. Hong Kong Anti-Apartheid, includes speech by Cyril Ramaphosa, Oct 1991
0042. International movement against all forms of discrimination and racism, n.d., 1991 – 1993

Box 0009
0043. Invitations to various functions and events, 1989 –1993, 1994, n.d
0044. Japan Afro-American Friendship Association (JAFA), 1991 – 1993, n.d
0045. Japan Anti-Apartheid Committee, also includes 2 booklets on apartheid in Japanese, n.d., 1988 – 1990
0046. Japan Council Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs, 1988
0047. Justice for Sharpeville Six, 1988
0048. Korea, 1989-1990, 1988, n.d
0049. Liberal Democratic Party, Japan, various booklets

Box 0010
0050. Lind. J.E & Espalson, D. V, “South Africa’s debt at the time of crisis”, April, 1986
0051. Mandela, N.R., Australia and Japan Visit, 1990. Includes various speeches by Mandela
0052. Message to N Mandela on his Release, 1990
0053. Matsila, Jerry, ANC Chief Representative in Japan: Speeches, 1992 – 1993
0054. Namibia, Information package on discriminatory and restrictive laws affecting free and fair elections, SWAPO, ca 1989-1990
0055. Namibia, various booklets
0056. National African Federated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (NAFCOC), 24thAnnual Conference, 7 –11 Aug 1988, various papers
0057. National Association of Democratic Lawyers (NADEL), n.d., 1987 – 1989
0058. National Development Forum, Press release, Sept 1991

Box 0011
0059. National Party documents and statements by F W De Klerk, 1989 – 1992
0060. National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa, NUMSA, 1991-1992
0061. Negotiations, various papers, n.d., 1990 – 1993
0062. Osaka University Students comments “ Any Child is My Child”, Fall 1990
0063. Paper : “The Defiance campaign of 1952 in SA against unjust laws: A criminological perspective”, Molobi, Frank, R., 1989
0064. Papers and statements (non-ANC)
0065. Papers: “ A half-hearted anti-apartheid policy” by Hayashi Koji, 1989; Nordic program of action against apartheid and “Japan and SA”, Yoko Kitazawa
0066. Political Prisoners campaign, n.d., 1988 – 1989
0067. Profiles of nominees for ANC NEC (incomplete), 1991
0068. Proposals, misc, n.d. 1991-1994
0068a .Interfaith Center on co-operate responsibility , 1974, n.d
0069. Sanctions, contraventions, 1989 – 1990
0070. Sanctions, various reports. Includes Taiwanese investment in SA, ca 1985 – 1990

Box 0012
0071. Second hand items projects, 1991
0072. Social Democratic Party of Japan, 1992 – 1993
0073. SOHYO (General Council of Trade unions of Japan), 1988 – 1989
0074. South Africa Scholarship Program, 1989-1990
0075. South African Democratic Teacher’s Union (SADTU), 1991
0076. South African Municipal Worker;s union (SAMWU), constitution
0077. Soweto Civic Association, constitution and booklet, 1990
0078. Speeches (Non – ANC), 1988, 1991-1992
0079. Sports, 1992
0080. “Waiting on Death”, statement on experience of those on death row, 1989
0081. World Conference for a Nuclear Free World papers, Aug 1988
0082. Zenko Festival, n.d., 1992 – 1993

 

Series IV – Periodicals

Box 0013
0001. African Communist (Braille on cover), Third Quarter, 1991
0002. Aliran (Malaysia), 1987-1989
0003. Anti Apartheid Movement Publications, n.d ,1981, 1986, 1988 – 1992
0004. Commonwealth News, 1983 – 1987
0005. Economist, The, 1990
0006. Grassroots, 1988-1989
0007. Japan Press Weekly, 1991

Box 0014
0008. Miscellaneous publications 1984, 1987-1988,1992, n.d
0009. Peace wave news, 1987-1988
0010. Phambili ANC newsletter in Japanese, 1992

 

Series V – Photographs

Box 0015 [OVERSIZE]
0001. MSC 1989-1991
0002. Miscellaneous 1989-1991
0003. Amandla Cultural Ensemble
0004. Poverty
0005. South African Police Service(SAPS)
0006. Migratory Labor System
0007. Sadao Watanobe: Saxophone player
0008. Umeme 1993
0009. ANC Maputo
0010. Unidentified
0011. Miscellaneous ca. 1988-1991
0012. Musics

 

——————————————–ADDITIONS——————————————

 

Series I – Correspondence

Box 0016
0001. All Japan Preferctural and Municipal Workers Union and Sydney Mufamadi, Deputy Secretary General of COSATU , 1989
0002. Amanda tour project , 1989-1990, 1991, n.d
0003. ANC Women’s League, 1992-1993
0004. ANC Youth League, 1991
0005. Association of Ex-Political Prisoners (AEPP)
0006. Charity concert to South African children , 1991
0007. Chief Representative and Christian Solidarity Movement, refunding proposal for the Christian’s Solidarity Movement Development Trust of South Africa, 1990 Nov 19
0008. Chief Representative’s Office, Jerry Matsila, n.d.1988-1993
0009. Department of Arts and Culture 1990 -1991
0010. Department of Education, 1990
0011. Department of Information and publicity, 1991
0012. Department of International Affairs, n.d, 1988,1989

 

Box 0017
0013. Education support project for children in South Africa, 1990-1993
0014. Incoming telefax messages to the chief representative, Jerry Matsila, 1988, 1991
0015. Jan Vanhekelom of VAAK (Vlaamse Anti-apartheid Koordinatie) and Mendi Msimang, re: London consultation on South Africa’s debt, 1989
0016. Japan Anti-Apartheid, 1988, 1990-1991
0017. Japan visit to ANC delegation, 1991 April 17
0018. Japanese political parties, 1990-1991, 1993
0019. Jerry Matsila (ANC Chief Representative) and ANC Natal Region, 1991-1992
0020. Jerry Matsila (ANC Chief Rep.) and his daughter Portia, n.d 1991,1994
0021. Jerry Matsila (ANC Chief Representative) and Malebane Metsing, re:The role played by Japan Mission in helping the funding of ANC projects and training, 1993 March 25
0022. Jerry Matsila (ANC Chief Representative) and other Chief Representatives from other ANC Mission Offices, 1989, 1992-1993
0023. Jerry Matsila (ANC Chief Representative) and Wally Mongane Serote (Zabalaza Festival Coordinator ) , re: Zabalaza a film festival celebrating new dawn in South Africa,1990
0024. Jerry Matsila (ANC Chief Representative) and Zola Skweyiya (Department of Legal Affairs ), 1990 April 21
0025. Jerry Ndou-ANCYL personpower development and Jerry Matsila (ANC Chief Representative ) , re:Scholarship Program, 1991
0026. Mandela, Nelson, visit to Japan and Asia, 1990
0027. Mayibuye Centre, 1992
0028. Memorandum to all ANC Missions, 1990-1991

Box 0018
0029. Messages to Nelson Mandela, some are written in Japanese but translated to English, 1990
0030. Office of president, 1992
0031. Outgoing telefax messages from the Chief Representative,Jerry Matsila, 1988, 1990
0032. Participation on a meeting on ANTI-apartheid campaign in Japan
by Eunice Komane, 1991
0033. Regarding Nelson Mandela, 1990-1991
0034. Regarding projects, 1991
0035. Scholarships, 1991
0036. Secretary General’s Office, 1990,1991,1993
0037. Singapore festival of Arts, 1989-1990
0038. South China Morning Post, 1990
0039. Treasurer General’s Office, 1989-1993
0040. University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Arts, 1990-1993
0041. Video Education Trust, letters of support from organisations, 199, includes annual final statement of community video education trust, 1990-1991

 

Series II – Reports

Box 0019
0001. Africa-Japan Culture and Sport Association,1989-1990
0002. Africa night in Japan, event reports
0003. ANC available projects/programs, n.d
0004. ANC Japan/Tokyo Mission, 1990,1992-1993
0005. ANC National Consultative Conference, declaration, 1990
0006. ANC project proposals, n.d, 1986, 1989-1992
0007. ANC Youth League, Inaugural Congress budget, 1991
0008. Annual plans and budget and budgets for Southern Africa cooperative Network (SACNET), 1992/1993
0009. Article contributed by Hirano Kazunori and Victor Makhosini who traveled from Japan to follow Amandla visit to South East Asia, 1990 July 5
0010. Association of ex political prisoners (SA), AEPP project proposals 1991-1992
0011. Australasian and Pacific Regional Conference Against Apartheid for democratic South Africa, Sydney, 1989 September 15-17
0012. Baraku Liberation League mission to South Africa
0013. Charity concert for South African Children- Financial report, 1991
0014. 1992 Convention for democratic South Africa (Codesa), 1992
0015. COSAC (Children of Soweto Action Group) project proposals, 1987, 1991, 1992
0016. Development in South Africa, 1993
0017. Donor’s Conference, 1991
0018. Economic change, social conflicts and education in apartheid South Africa, a conference report by research on education in South Africa, 1989 March 28-31
0019. The economic labor and retailing situation in Hong Kong by FK Leong TWARO Assistant secretary, 1988

Box 0020
0020. Educational funding proposal, 1991
0021. Estimate for the use of UNU conference hall and related facilities and equipments, 1994 January 22. Financial report, ANC Japan mission, n.d 1992
0023. The Japan Nelson Mandela Reception Committee, proposals, n.d
0024. National Party constitutional proposal by South Africa Embassy in Japan, n.d
0025. National Reception Committee, motivation and budget, 1989-1990
0026. National Working youth Executive Committee, Sakai Kanan Branch, 1993 April 12
0027. Phemelo Foundation project proposal, 1990-1991
0028. Policy statements on ANC projects
0029. Project funding in South Africa, 1991
0030. Project proposals, 1991 . Includes the following groups: visual arts group, Natal Culture Congress, Musical Action for Peoples progress, Alexander Art Center, Performing Arts Workers Equality, Amandla, Association of Ex-political prisoners (SA), Black Lawyers Association
0031. Project proposal, ANC Women’s League, n.d, 1990-1992
0032. Project proposal, art and culture, n.d , 1992

Box 0021
0033. Project proposal, economic and social welfare, 1989-1991
0034. project proposal, educational, n.d, 1989-1992
0035. project proposal, health and primary health care, n.d
0036. Report on the National meeting of the National Committee for the Children’s Rights (NCCR), Johannesburg, 1991 June 15-16
0037. Resolution for action taken at the 43rd Anniversary World Conference, n.d
0038. Southern Africa Cooperative Network, 1992
0039. Submission by Operation Masakhane for Homeless (OMHLE) to motivate the funding of low cost community based building material depot in homeless communities,[1991]
0040. TEC: Sub-council of Foreign Affairs (SCFA) with regard to the SCFA’s attendance and Regional Foreign Affairs conference and conducting of international deliberations relating to normalization of South Africa’s International Relations which will positively impact on Government of National Unity after the elections and the national interest of South Africa as a whole as per the terms of reference of the sub-council on Foreign Affairs, 1994 March 15-29 and April 24
0041. Urgent assistance towards new and peaceful South Africa , proposal, 1990
0042. Vegetable production and marketing in South Africa, a country report presented to Tsukuba International Agricultural Training Centre (TIACTC) of Japan International
cooperation Agency (JICA) by Mamogaudi J Maloa, 1992 February 07
0043. Visit to South Korea by Jerry Matsila, 1989 March 26

 

Series III – Minutes

Box 0022
0001. All African Head of Diplomatic Missions in Japan, 1990-1991
0002. All African Head of Diplomatic Missions in Japan, 1992, include newspaper clippings
0003. All African Head of Diplomatic Missions in Japan, 1993-1994
0004. Charity concert for South African children, 1991 March-May
0005. Embassy meetings, 1988
0006. Informal meeting of African Brothers, 1990 Feb
0007. Introductory meet convened by secretariat
0008. Minutes of regular meetings of Heads of African Diplomatic Missions in Japan, 1993-1994
0009. Meeting with Getrude at Zambia Embassy, 1991 May 17
0010. Meeting with with M. Suemori, 1990 July 30
0011. Meeting with South African Ambassador accredited to Japan and Republic of Korea, 1993
0012. Minutes of workshop hosted by SACNET ( South Africa cooperative ) held in Johannesburg, 1991 Oct 16-18
0013. Open Apartheid Prisons Campaign, 1988-1989
0014. Tokyo Office Meetings, 1988-1989, 1991-1992

 

Series IV – Statements

Box 0023
0001. ANC statements and press release on various occasions, 1990, 1991
0002. COSATU press statements, 1988, 1993
0003. First anniversary of founding the ANC Tokyo Office, [1989]
0004. Foreign Press Centre (FPC) press release on various issues in South Africa 1992-1994
0005. International Labor Organization, Changing this country, testimony by four South African Workers, Thembinkosi Mkalipi, Ben Siyo, Bridgitte Masabalala, Arthur Williams, n.d
0006. Opening statement of J.R. Dash for international Human Rights Watch, 1990 Dec 8-9
0007. South Africa at a turning point, a speech delivered at JAFA meeting, Sophia University, 1993 May 22-23
0008. Statement by Rev. Frank Chikane, Secretary General of South African Council of Churches, Tokyo -Japan, 1990 March 17

 

Series V – Discussion Documents

Box 0024
0001. Action policy of Japanese Trade Union Confederation (JTUC-Rengo), 1992/1993
0002. African liberation: South Africa at turning point, presented by the Japan Afro American Friendship Association (JAFA), 1993
0003. ANC negotiations task force, n.d
0004. Peace, freedom and vote now, program of action, 1991
0005. Racism demands more than apologies by Albert L. Nellum, n.d
0006. Situation of children of South Africa by Jerry Matsila, 1992 Oct 18
0007. South Africa’s debt crises, 1989
0008. Spring struggle for a better living 1994, RENGO white paper

 

Series VI – Publications

Box 0025
0001. Amandla, in Japanese Language, 1990
0002. Bulletin of a Japanese human rights issue, 1990
0003. International JAAC Group, newsletter, 1988
0004. SGI Newsletter, 1990
0005. South China Morning Post and Japan Times, newspaper clippings, 1990